Beaufort, Henry, Duke of Somerset

   The son and heir of Edmund BEAUFORT, second duke of Somerset, Henry Beaufort, third duke of Somerset, was one of the chief military leaders of the Lancastrian cause during the first phase (1459–1461) of the WARS OF THE ROSES.
   In May 1455, Beaufort was severely wounded at the Battle of ST. ALBANS, where BEAUFORT, HENRY, DUKE OF SOMERSET 25 he witnessed his father’s death at the hands of troops commanded by his father’s rival, Richard PLANTAGENET, duke of York. Both dynastic and personal considerations made the new duke a staunch supporter of HENRY VI—the BEAUFORT FAMILY was a branch of the house of LANCASTER, and Somerset considered York guilty of his father’s murder. In early 1458, Somerset and the sons of the other noblemen slain at St. Albans brought large retinues to LONDON, where they demanded revenge against York and his chief allies, Richard NEVILLE, earl of Salisbury, and his son Richard NEVILLE, earl of Warwick. After attempting to ambush York and Salisbury, Somerset and his allies agreed to a reconciliation brokered by Henry VI and sealed by the LOVE-DAY of March 1458.
   When that settlement collapsed in civil war in 1459, Henry VI appointed Somerset captain of CALAIS. But being unable to dislodge Warwick from the town, Somerset returned to England in October 1460. In December, the duke led the army that defeated and killed York and Salisbury at the Battle of WAKEFIELD, and in February 1461 he commanded the victorious Lancastrians at the Battle of ST. ALBANS. Somerset commanded again at the Battle of TOWTON in late March, but fled into SCOTLAND with the Lancastrian royal family when EDWARD IV won the day. In March 1462, after failing to win help from FRANCE, Somerset returned to England where Queen MARGARET OF ANJOU entrusted him with the Lancastrian-held castle of BAMBURGH, which he surrendered in December. Edward IV pardoned Somerset in March 1463, and later reversed his ATTAINDER and restored him to his lands and titles. In late 1463, the duke reverted to his old allegiance, fleeing to the Lancastrian-held castles of Bamburgh and ALNWICK, from which he conducted a spring campaign that wrested much of northeastern England from Yorkist control. Defeated at the Battle of HEDGELEY MOOR in April 1464, Somerset regrouped and, placing Henry VI at the head of his army, marched south, encountering the forces of John NEVILLE, Lord Montagu, on 15 May. Defeated and captured at the subsequent Battle of HEXHAM, Somerset was executed shortly thereafter. Because Somerset was unmarried, the Lancastrians conferred his title on his younger brother, Edmund BEAUFORT.
   See also other entries under Beaufort
   Further Reading: Haigh, Philip A., The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses (Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1995); “Henry Beaufort,” in Michael Hicks, Who’s Who in Late Medieval England (London: Shepheard- Walwyn, 1991), pp. 313–315; Pollard, A. J., North- Eastern England during the Wars of the Roses (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990); Ross, Charles, Edward IV (New Haven, CT:Yale University Press, 1998).

Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. . 2001.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Beaufort, Edmund, Duke of Somerset —    1) (c. 1406–1455)    Through his quarrel with Richard PLANTAGENET, duke of York, Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset, helped initiate the political conflicts that eventually escalated into the WARS OF THE ROSES.    Edmund Beaufort was a… …   Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses

  • Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset — (26 January 1436 – 15 May 1464) was an important Lancastrian military commander during the English Wars of the Roses. (Some number him 2nd Duke, since the title was re created for his father after his uncle died.)Somerset was the son of Edmund… …   Wikipedia

  • Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset — (1406 ndash; May 22, 1455), sometimes styled 2nd Duke of Somerset, was an English nobleman and an important figure in the Wars of the Roses and in the Hundred Years War.LifeEdmund Beaufort was the fourth son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset …   Wikipedia

  • Edmund Beaufort, 2. Duke of Somerset — Wappen Edmunds Beaufort Edmund Beaufort, 4. Earl und 1. (2.) Duke of Somerset (* um 1405; † 22. Mai 1455 bei St Albans, Hertfordshire, England) war ein englischer Edelmann und eine bedeutende Figur im Rosenkrieg und im Hundertjährigen Krieg. Er… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Beaufort, 1. Duke of Somerset — Wappen der Beauforts John Beaufort, 1. Herzog von Somerset (* 1404; † 27. Mai 1444) war ein englischer Adliger aus dem Haus Beaufort. Er war der zweite Sohn von John Beaufort, 1. Earl of Somerset und Margaret Holland. Er folgte seinem älteren… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edmund Beaufort, 4. Duke of Somerset — Edmund Beaufort, selbsternannter 3. bzw. 4. Duke of Somerset[1] (* ca. 1439; † 6. Mai 1471 in Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire) war ein englischer Adeliger und Befehlshaber auf seiten des Hauses Lancaster während der Rosenkriege. Mit seinem Tod starb… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset — (1438? ndash; May 6, 1471) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Wars of the Roses.He was the son of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, and became duke at the death of his elder brother Henry in 1464. (The dukedom was… …   Wikipedia

  • John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset — John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 3rd Earl of Somerset (baptised March 25,1404 ndash; May 27, 1444), was an English noble and military commander.He was the second son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and succeeded his elder brother… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry, Duke of Cornwall — was the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henry in total had six children by Catherine of Aragon; 2 girls, 3 boys, and 1 whose sex is unrecorded. Only one of their children, Princess Mary… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset — (November 26 ( probable ), 1401 November 25, 1418) was the eldest son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and the grandson of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford.Henry succeeded his father as Earl of Somerset on March 16, 1410. He never… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.